[30]​, Mauna Loa se está desplomando hacia el este a lo largo de la zona de ruptura del suroeste, acarreando su masa contra la de Kilauea y moviendo este último hacia el este a una velocidad de unos 10 cm por año; esta interacción entre los dos volcanes generó una serie de grandes terremotos en el pasado, y resultó en un significativo área de residuos a lo largo del flanco marino de Kilauea, conocido como la «Depresión de Hilina» (Hilina Slump). After soliciting help from Lorrin A. Thurston, in 1915 he was able to persuade the US Army to construct a "simple route to the summit" for public and scientific use, a project completed in December of that year; the Observatory has maintained a presence on the volcano ever since. Height Mauna Loa. At 9:04 p.m. on June 1, 1950, a fissure 1.5 miles (2.4 km) long opened along the Southwest Rift Zone of Mauna Loa above 11,000 feet (3,500 m) in altitude. [39]​[53]​, Mauna Loa fue designado como uno de los Volcanes de la Década, uno de los dieciséis volcanes identificados por la Asociación Internacional de Vulcanología y Química del Interior de la Tierra (IAVCEI) como dignos de estudios especiales por su historia de grandes erupciones destructivas y los riegos que ponen por su proximidad a zonas pobladas. Lockwood J.P. (1995), "Mauna Loa eruptive history – the preliminary radiocarbon record", in Rhodes, J.M. La mayoría de estos relatos coinciden en que la deidad del volcán hawaiano, Pele, reside en el cráter Halemaʻumaʻu en el Kilauea; Sin embargo algunos mencionan que reside en Mokuaweoweo, la caldera del Mauna Lao, y en términos generales el mito asocia la deidad con toda la actividad volcánica en la isla. E. W. Wolfe, W. S. Wise, G. B. Dalrymple (1997). Existe un riesgo real de que fuertes terremotos provoquen el colapso rápido de los flancos del volcán a lo largo de estas fallas, y que causen derrumbes masivos y posiblemente grandes tsunamis. In addition, much of the mountain is invisible even underwater: its mass depresses the crust beneath it by another 8 km (5 mi), in the shape of an inverse mountain,[21] meaning the total height of Mauna Loa from the start of its eruptive history is about 17,170 m (56,000 ft). A system of older faults exists on the southeastern side of Mauna Loa that likely formed before Kilauea became large enough to impede Mauna Loa's slump, the lowest and northernmost of which, the Kaoiki fault, remains an active earthquake center today. Although the journey was arduous and required several days and many porters, ancient Hawaiians likely made the journey during eruptions to leave offerings and prayers to honor Pele, much as they did at Halemaʻumaʻu, neighboring Kilauea's more active and more easily accessible caldera. Its dome is 75 miles (120 km) long and 64 miles (103 km) wide. Se desconoce la causa del cese de actividad, y no se conoce ningún otro hiato similar en otros volcanes de Hawái, excepto aquellos que se encuentran actualmente en la etapa post-escudo. [8] Unlike Mauna Kea, on which extensive evidence of glaciation remains even today,[34] Mauna Loa was at the time and has remained active, having grown an additional 150 to 300 m (492 to 984 ft) in height since then and covering any glacial deposits beneath new flows; strata of that age doesn't occur until at least 2,000 m (6,562 ft) down from the volcano's summit, too low for glacial growth. It rises 13,680 ft. (4,170 m) above sea level. E. C. Cannon & R. R. Bürgmann (26 de octubre de 2009). However, two sections of the volcano, the first in the Naalehu area and the second on the southeastern flank of Mauna Loa's rift zone, are protected from eruptive activity by local topography, and have thus been designated hazard level 6, comparable with a similarly isolated segment on Kīlauea. [2]​, Mauna Loa es el volcán más grande del mundo; tiene una superficie de 5271 km², y una anchura máxima de 120 km. [69] The prevailing lowland forest ecosystem was transformed from forest to grassland; some of this change was caused by the use of fire, but the main reason appears to have been the introduction of the Polynesian Rat (Rattus exulans). [40], Ancient Hawaiians have been present on Hawaiʻi island for about 1,500 years, but they preserved almost no records on volcanic activity on the island, beyond a few fragmentary accounts dating to the late 18th and early 19th centuries. Axes and chisels cut away the rock surface for the pendulum's base. Like all Hawaiian volcanoes, Mauna Loa was created as the Pacific tectonic plate moved over the Hawaii hotspot in the Earth's underlying mantle. Monte Merapi • Sobre la base de esta escala las zonas con una actividad volcánica continua —como la caldera en la cumbre de Mauna Loa y las zonas de ruptura— fueron clasificadas como «nivel 1». Its recent inactivity is most likely not long-term, as even a century of low activity is a very short period in Mauna Loa's several hundred-thousand year history. [16]​, Se crearon modelos geofísicos simplificados de la cámara magmática de Mauna Loa, utilizando mediciones por radar interferométrico de apertura sintética de la deformación del suelo debido a la lenta acumulación de magma bajo la superficie del volcán. [11]​ El volcán más antiguo de la isla, Kohala, tiene una edad de más de un millón de años,[12]​ y se cree que Kilauea, el volcán más joven, tiene una edad de 300.000 a 600.000 años. [41] A bombing operation was decided upon to try and divert the flows, planned out by then-lieutenant colonel George S. Patton. It is speculated that extensive phreatomagmatic activity occurred during this time, contributing extensively to ash deposits on the summit. Very low temperatures mean that precipitation often occurs in the form of snow, and the summit of Mauna Loa is described as a periglacial region, where freezing and thawing play a significant role in shaping the landscape. En febrero de ese año Menzies, acompañado de compañeros, y un pequeño grupo de asistentes nativos de Hawái, intentaron una ruta directa hacia la cumbre desde la bahía de Kealakekua, logrando cubrir una distancia de 26 km según sus cálculos (una sobreestimación) antes de que tuvieron que regresar debido a la espesura de los matorrales. [43]​ La mayoría de las erupciones se centra ya sea en la cumbre o en una de las dos principales zonas de ruptura; dentro de los últimos doscientos años, el 38 % de las erupciones ocurrió en la cumbre, 31 % en la zona de ruptura noreste, 25 % en la zona de ruptura suroeste, y el 6 % restante se originó de los respiraderos del noroeste. [74]​, A partir de 1838 la expedición exploratoria de los Estado Unidos, al mando del teniente Charles Wilkes, fue encargada con la amplia tarea de estudiar el océano Pacífico. El Observatorio de Mauna Loa (MLO) de NOAA también se encuentra muy cerca. [31]​, Mauna Loa es lo suficientemente alto como para haber experimentado glaciación durante la última edad de hielo, hace 25 000 a 15 000 años. In February 1794 fuente de alimentos básicos christmas day was spent building rock walls around the camp to some! 1912 ha sido intensamente vigilado por el Observatorio Vulcanológico de Hawái volcanoes in the world isla el de... 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