A major tributary of the Mississippi River, the Arkansas River generally flows to the east and southeast, through the states of Colorado, Kansas, Oklahoma, and Arkansas. Principal cities along its route are Pueblo, Colorado; Wichita, Kansas; Tulsa, Oklahoma; and Fort Smith and Little Rock, Arkansas. This article abides by terms of the Creative Commons CC-by-sa 3.0 License (CC-by-sa), which may be used and disseminated with proper attribution. It continues eastward across the plains and forests of eastern Arkansas until it flows into the Mississippi River near Napoleon, Arkansas.  Its volume is much smaller than the Missouri and Ohio rivers, with a mean discharge of about 40,000 cubic feet per second (1,100 m3/s). [d], Later, the Santa Fe Trail followed the Arkansas through much of Kansas, picking it up near Great Bend and continuing through to La Junta, Colorado. Clean restrooms (especially for a public park/trail), lightly used (compared to other urban parks in Colorado), well maintained and litter free. Trout Unlimited considers the river to be one of the top 100 trout streams in America. The number in parentheses after the port's location corresponds to the numbered icons on the map. The US encouraged a peace treaty made in 1828 but the territory issue was still unresolved by the time thousands of additional Cherokee refugees moved to the area during the Trail of Tears. Surrounded by Colorado's 13,000 and 14,000 ft peaks our mountainous landscape provides an amazing outdoor playground. The Arkansas River has 3 ports and harbors. The Arkansas River is a major tributary of the Mississippi River. Flooding in 1927 severely damaged or destroyed nearly every levee downstream of Fort Smith, and led to the development of the Arkansas River Flood Control Association. (75 m to 90 m), Bridge clearance: 300 ft. horizontal (90 m) 52 ft. vertical (15.6 m). The Arkansas River is a major tributary of the Mississippi River. By then, the site was known as the Lasley Vore Site. The Court appointed a Special Master to investigate the allegations and submit recommendations to the Court. To cite this article click here for a list of acceptable citing formats.The history of earlier contributions by wikipedians is accessible to researchers here: The history of this article since it was imported to New World Encyclopedia: Note: Some restrictions may apply to use of individual images which are separately licensed. Union troops returned to the area later in the war, after defeating the Confederates at the Battle of Pea Ridge and the Battle of Fort Smith.  In mid-April 1822, the Robert Thompson, towing a keelboat, was the first steamboat to navigate the Arkansas as far as Fort Smith. They planned to reunite with the Cherokee who had moved there on the Trail of Tears in 1839. Kansas v. Colorado refers to a number of cases heard by the Supreme Court of the United States: In 1994, the Special Master issued his first report, which recommended that the Court find Colorado in violation of the Compact in certain respects.  "The name "Arkansas" was first applied by French Father Jacques Marquette, who called the river Akansa in his journal of 1673. The Middle Buffalo flows from Pruitt to about Gilbert. At 1,469 miles (2,364 km), it is the sixth-longest river in the United States, the second-longest tributary in the Mississippi–Missouri system, and the 45th longest river in the world. The states of Kansas and Colorado have a long history of disagreement concerning the Arkansas River (pronounced ar-KAN'-sas river in Kansas), arguing before the Supreme Court of the United States on three previous occasions, 1902, 1907, and 1943.  While Congress approved the Arkansas River Compact in 1949, the compact did not stop further disputes by the two states over water rights to the river. The Fourche LaFave Bridge in Perry County is listed on the National Register of Historic Places. The more one understands about this fishery, the better one can integrate observations on the stream into a more meaningful framework. To maintain more reliable flow rates, a series of dams and large reservoir lakes have been built on the Arkansas and its intersecting tributaries, including the Canadian, Verdigris, Neosho (Grand), Illinois, and Poteau rivers. Station Number Station name Date/Time Gage height, feet Dis-charge, ft3/s Long-term median flow 1/22 Undefined: 07049698: White River near Busch, AR Native Americans hunted along its length, early explorers followed it westward, and from 1820 to 1846, it served as the boundary between the United States and Mexico. The May 2002 I-40 bridge disaster took place on I-40's crossing of Kerr Reservoir on the Arkansas River near Webbers Falls, Oklahoma. , The McClellan–Kerr Arkansas River Navigation System diverts from the Arkansas River 2.5 mi (4.0 km) upstream of the Wilbur D. Mills Dam to avoid the long winding route which the lower Arkansas River follows. The treaty was made shortly after "Old Settler" Cherokee were pushed out of Texas and moved to near what became known as Webbers Falls on the Arkansas River. Many nations of Native Americans lived near or along the Arkansas River in its 1,450 mile (2334 km) stretch, but the first Europeans to see the river were members of the Coronado expedition on June 29, 1541 near the site of Dodge City, Kansas. They resisted the new Native Americans moving in with armed conflict. Below Tulsa, and continuing to its mouth, the river is navigable by barges and large river craft thanks to a series of dams that turn it into reservoirs. Gordon, Alice, Jerry Camarillo Dunn, Mel White, Tim Thompson, and Roger G. Kennedy. La Harpe's party were honored with the calumet ceremony and spent ten days at this location. Just west of Pueblo, Colorado, the river enters the Great Plains. This section (including The Numbers, Brown's Canyon, and the Royal Gorge) sees extensive whitewater rafting in the spring and summer. The Joliet-Marquette expedition travelled the Mississippi River from Prairie du Chien, Wisconsin toward the Gulf of Mexico, but turned back at the mouth of the Arkansas River. Its origin is in the Rocky Mountains in Lake County, Colorado, near Leadville. The Arkansas River is rising well above its previous record, and it's forecast to stay that way for days. The explorer wrote that he and nine other men, including three Caddo guides and 22 horses loaded with trade goods, had come to a native settlement overlooking the river, where there were about 6,000 natives, who gave the strangers a warm welcome. His original objective was to establish a trading post near the present city of Texarkana, Arkansas, but he extended his trip overland as far north as the Arkansas River (which he designated as the Alcansas).  These locks and dams enable the river to be navigable by barges and large river craft downriver of Muskogee, Oklahoma, where the McClellan-Kerr Arkansas River Navigation System joins the Verdigris River. It has a total fall of 11,400 feet (3,475 m), and its drainage basin covers 161,000 square miles (417,000 square km). Historically, the Arkansas River has played an important role in westward expansion. The first section, running to Little Rock, Arkansas, opened in 1968. It generally flows to the east and southeast as it traverses the U.S. states of Colorado, Kansas, Oklahoma, and Arkansas. [a], French traders and trappers who had opened up trade with Indian tribes in Canada and the areas around the Great Lakes began exploring the Mississippi and some of its northern tributaries. , The path of the Arkansas River has changed over time. Colorado Division of Wildlife Fishing Reports, "Experts Close In On What Killed Fish - NW Arkansas News Story - KHBS NW Arkansas", "Arkansas River Fish Kill Investigation Continues", "Gas Bubble Trauma likely cause of fish kills", Encyclopedia of Oklahoma History and Culture - Arkansas River, Oklahoma Digital Maps: Digital Collections of Oklahoma and Indian Territory, "Arkansas, a river of the United States of America", "Arkansas, a S. W. river of the United States", https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Arkansas_River&oldid=999837547, Articles with dead external links from May 2019, Articles with permanently dead external links, Wikipedia articles incorporating a citation from the 1911 Encyclopaedia Britannica with Wikisource reference, Wikipedia articles incorporating a citation from the New International Encyclopedia, Wikipedia articles incorporating a citation from EB9, Wikipedia articles incorporating a citation from The American Cyclopaedia, Wikipedia articles incorporating a citation from The American Cyclopaedia with a Wikisource reference, Wikipedia articles with SUDOC identifiers, Wikipedia articles with WORLDCATID identifiers, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, This page was last edited on 12 January 2021, at 05:43. Many varieties of ferns and flowers exist on the banks providing good year-round scenery. At 1,469 miles (2,364 km), it is the sixth-longest river in the United States, the second-longest tributary in the Mississippi– Missouri system, and the 45th longest river in the world. The vessel was destroyed, and a part of its cargo was looted by the Confederates. Tributaries include the Canadian River and the Cimarron River, both flowing from northeastern New Mexico, and the Salt Fork Arkansas River. Since then, the Master has issued three more reports and the states have filed various objections, most of which the Court has dismissed. The Confederate Army sent troops from Texas to support its Native American allies. Brown and Rainbow Trout tend to dominate the river. In 1859, placer gold discovered in the Leadville area brought thousands seeking to strike it rich, but the easily recovered placer gold was quickly exhausted. Native Americans long occupied the area along the river before being discovered by Europeans in the 1800s. Also in the 1540s Hernando de Soto discovered the junction of the Arkansas with the Mississippi. The Arkansas has three distinct sections in its long path through central North America. Die befindet sich im US-Bundesstaat Colorado, mitten in den Rocky Mountains, etwa 130 Kilometer von Denverentfernt. New World Encyclopedia writers and editors rewrote and completed the Wikipedia article , By the time Fort Smith was established in 1817, larger capacity watercraft became available to transport goods up and down the Arkansas.  By 1890, water from the Arkansas was being used to irrigate more than 20,000 acres (8,100 ha) of farmland in Kansas. Click on the yellow port icons for more information on that port. Water flow in the Arkansas River (as measured in central Kansas) has dropped from approximately 248 cubic feet per second (7.0 m3/s) average from 1944–1963 to 53 cubic feet per second (1.5 m3/s) average from 1984–2003, largely because of the pumping of groundwater for irrigation in eastern Colorado and western Kansas. Arkansas Post is said to have been the first European settlement in the Mississippi Valley, Fort Gibson had been built in 1824 on the bank of the Verdigris River in what had been called the "Three Forks" area of. The mouth has changed since plotting by USGS. In 1806 the American explorer Zebulon Pike traveled t… The wood is soft and easily worked with the crude tools carried by both the French and Indians. Jean-Baptiste Bénard de la Harpe, a French trader, explorer and nobleman had led an expedition into what is now Oklahoma in 1718–19. The river is 1,460 miles long and flows across three states before making its way into Arkansas. , On March 31, 1820, the Comet became the first steamboat to successfully navigate part of the Arkansas River, reaching a place called Arkansas Post,[c] about 60 miles (97 km) above the confluence of the Arkansas and the Mississippi rivers. These included flatboats (bateaus) and keelboats. For five years, Fort Smith was known as the head of navigation for steamboats on the river. It enters the Mississippi at Napoleon, Arkansas 40 miles (64 km) northeast of Arkansas City, Arkansas. In eastern Oklahoma the river begins to widen further into a more contained consistent channel. It’s a major tributary of the Mississippi River, and its source is located near Leadville, in Colorado’s Rocky Mountains. Initially, the Union Army abandoned its forts in the Indian Territory, including Fort Gibson and Fort Smith, in order to maximize its strength for campaigns elsewhere. Important cities along the Arkansas include Pueblo, Colorado; Wichita, Kansas; Tulsa, Oklahoma; Fort Smith and Little Rock, Arkansas. At Cañon City, Colorado, the Arkansas River valley widens and flattens markedly. "History of the Arkansas River (1540 to 2000)". The height of the banks varies from a few feet to 30+ feet bluffs. Kansas has filed six exceptions to the reports recommendations, and the United States has intervened to ask the Court to overrule two of them. The headwaters derive from the snowpack in the Sawatch and Mosquito mountain ranges. Sediments from the river found in a palaeochannel next to Nolan, a site in the Tensas Basin, show that part of the river's meander belt flowed through up to 5200 BP. In volume, the river is smaller than both the Missouri and Ohio Rivers, with an average discharge of at its mouth of 41,000 ft³/s (1155 m³/s). The compact was approved and implemented by both states in 1970, and has been in force since then. At its headwaters beginning near Leadville, Colorado, the Arkansas runs as a steep fast-flowing mountain river through the Rockies in its narrow valley, dropping 4,600 feet (1,400 m) in 120 miles (190 km). Many nations of Native Americans lived near, or along, the 1,450-mile (2,334-km) stretch of the Arkansas River for thousands of years. The McClellan-Kerr Arkansas River Navigation System is part of the inland waterway system originating at the Tulsa Port of Catoosa and running southeast through Oklahoma and Arkansas to the Mississippi River. In September 1864, a body of Confederate irregulars led by General Stand Watie (Cherokee) successfully ambushed a Union supply ship bound for Fort Gibson. (It's not so easy to define how long a river is. Along the section of the Arkansas River that carries the McClellan-Kerr channel, the river sustains commercial barge traffic and offers passenger and recreational use, and is considered by some, a series of reservoirs. This is a nice place to go on morning and evening walks but in the span of five years, the river is turning stinky and dirty due to people discarding their trash into the river. It offers Class II to Class V rapids for whitewater rafting. The name "Arkansas" was first applied by Father Jacques Marquette, who called the river Akansa in his journal of 1673. Pirogues are still used in the swamps and marshes of South Louisiana by descendants of the "Cajuns," who were exiled from eastern Canada by the British. Tributaries include the Cimarron and the Salt Fork Arkansas rivers. The water is fed by melted snowpack from the Sawatch and Mosquito mountain ranges. Each lock measures 110 feet (34 m) wide and 600 feet (180 m) long, the standard size for much of the Mississippi River waterway. 2017. Die Quelle des Stroms entspringt in rund 4.260 Metern Höhe nahe der kleinen Stadt Leadville. " Tests later indicated the likely cause of the kill was gas bubble trauma caused by opening the spillways on the Ozark Dam.  The Arkansas River's mouth is at Napoleon, Arkansas, and its drainage basin covers nearly 170,000 square miles (440,000 km2).  It also resulted in the Federal gvernment assigning responsibility of flood control and navigation on the Arkansas to the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (USACOE). The ports and harbors situated on the Arkansas River are shown on the map and port index by country table below. At 1,469 miles (2,364 km), the Arkansas is the sixth longest river in the United States, the second-longest tributary in the Mississippi-Missouri system, and the 45th longest river in the world. From Leadville the Arkansas River flows southeast for about 100 miles (160 km) to … Central Colorado’s Arkansas River and the AHRA offers more than 152 miles of river rafting adventure and many other outdoor activities, and most recently, 102 miles of Gold Medal Trout fishing. Water flow in the Arkansas River (as measured in central Kansas) has dropped from approximately 248 cubic feet per second (7 m³/s) average from 1944-1963 to 53 cubic feet per second (1.5 m³/s) average from 1984-2003, largely because of the pumping of groundwater for irrigation in eastern Colorado and western Kansas. Seventeen dams and locks along the waterway, which is 250 ft (75 m) wide and 9 ft deep, create a large supply of hydroelectric power. It flows east into the Midwest via Kansas, and finally into the South through Oklahoma and Arkansas. The river valley expands as it encounters much flatter land beginning just west of Little Rock, Arkansas. On Jan. 10, 2014, the Colorado Parks and Wildlife Commission announced the addition of the longest stretch of Gold Medal Trout Waters in Colorado, the Arkansas River. The river forms a series of long, quiet pools and short, hairpin turns. Arkansas River near Leadville, Colo. S. Voynick/Shostal Associates.  This section supports extensive whitewater rafting, including The Numbers (near Granite, Colorado), Brown's Canyon, and the Royal Gorge. The Ponca to Pruitt in the Upper Buffalo is one of the most popular. The Arkansas River has a total length of 1,469 miles before emptying into the Mississippi River near the city of Napoleon. The pirogues were sturdier and could be more useful to navigate the sandbars and snags of the Southern waterways.. When the McClellan–Kerr Arkansas River Navigation System was constructed between 1963 and 1970, the Arkansas Post Canal was significantly improved, while the lower Arkansas River continued to be bypassed by commercial vessels.. In 1806 the American explorer Zebulon Pike traveled through the river's upper reaches. They began recovering the position it had previously abandoned, most notably Fort Gibson, and reopened the Arkansas River as a supply route. The Kansas–Oklahoma Arkansas River Basin Compact was created in 1965 to promote mutual consideration and equity over water use in the basin shared by those states. Through the rest of Colorado, through Kansas, and through northern Oklahoma to Tulsa, it is a typical Great Plains riverway, with wide shallow banks subject to seasonal flooding. If a number of tributaries merge to form a larger river, how would you define where the river actually begins? Port Map. The first Europeans to see the river were members of the Spanish Coronado expedition on June 29, 1541.  From Leadville to Pueblo, the Arkansas River is serviced by numerous fly shops and guides operating in Buena Vista, Salida, Cañon City and Pueblo. It lost the title to Fort Gibson in April 1832, when three steamboats, Velocipede, Scioto and Catawba, all arrived at Fort Gibson later that month. Art, Music, Literature, Sports and leisure, McClellan-Kerr_Arkansas_River_Navigation_System, https://www.newworldencyclopedia.org/p/index.php?title=Arkansas_River&oldid=995292, Creative Commons Attribution/Share-Alike License, Width of channel: mostly 250 ft (76 m). Through Oklahoma and Arkansas, dams which artificially deepen and widen the river to sustain commercial barge traffic and recreational use give the river the appearance of a series of reservoirs. McClellan-Kerr Arkansas River Navigation System, McClellan–Kerr Arkansas River Navigation System, List of longest rivers of the United States (by main stem), "McClellan-Kerr Arkansas River Navigation System (MKARNS)", "USGS Gage #07263500 Arkansas River at Little Rock, AR", "Chaffee County Colorado Gold Production", "McClellan-Kerr Arkansas River Navigation System 2016 Inland Waterway Fact Sheet", Wright, Muriel H. "Early Navigation and Commerce along the Arkansas and Red Rivers in Oklahoma.". - 300 ft (91 m). Main trail is approximately 7 miles long. The problems over the possession and use of Arkansas River water by Colorado and Kansas led to the creation of an interstate compact or agreement between the two states. By that time, they had encountered Native Americans carrying European trinkets, and feared confrontation with Spanish conquistadors. The Arkansas River is the second-longest tributary in the Mississippi … Flows at the Trimble Lock and Dam near Fort Smith were at 170,000 cubic feet Wednesday and the flow should peak there at 530,000 cubic feet on … The mouth has changed since plotting by USGS to Mississippi River Mile 580 from Mile 582 in the 1980 survey. Arkansas River rafting can fuel your sole with adventure and will be the highlight of your summer! Also in the 1540s Hernando de Soto discovered the junction of the Arkansas with the Mississippi. Since 1902, Kansas has claimed that Colorado takes too much of the river's water; it has filed numerous lawsuits over this issue in the U.S. Supreme Court that continue to this day, generally under the name of Kansas v. Colorado. At its headwaters in the Sawatch Range of the Rocky Mountains near the town of Leadville Colorado, the Arkansas runs as a steep mountain torrent through the Rockies in its narrow valley, dropping 4,600 feet (1.4 km) in 120 miles (193 km). , A fish kill occurred on December 29, 2010, in which an estimated 100,000 freshwater drum lined the Arkansas River bank. Colorado's Arkansas Headwaters Recreation Area includes 150 miles of the Arkansas River near its source. The Spanish originally called the river Napeste. The fast flow and high water on the Arkansas River has had "devastating" consequences for river commerce, the director of the Arkansas Waterways Commission said Tuesday. in accordance with New World Encyclopedia standards. The headwaters of the Arkansas River in central Colorado have been known for exceptional trout fishing, particularly fly fishing, since the 19th century, when greenback cutthroat trout dominated the river. Though it primarily follows the Arkansas River, it also follows portions of the Verdigris River in Oklahoma and the White River in Arkansas. Today Arkansas ranks 27th among the 50 states in area, but, except for Louisiana and Hawaii, it is the smallest state west of the Mississippi River. While it was previously thought that this relict channel was active at the same time as another relict of Mississippi River's meander belt, it has been shown that this channel of the Arkansas was inactive approximately 400 years before the Mississippi channel was active.. It is commonly shaded by overhanging trees. Arkansas River. It continues to play an important role in the central states, feeding that region's important farmlands. Man muss schon ein geübter Bergsteiger sein, um das kleine Rinnsal, das schnell zu einem großen Fluss anschwellen soll, in den „Rockies“ zu f… Through the rest of Colorado, Kansas, and much of Oklahoma, it is a typical Great Plains riverway, with wide, shallow banks subject to seasonal flooding and periods of dwindling flow. Trout Unlimited considers the Arkansas one of the top 100 trout streams in America, a reputation the river has had since the 1950s. Early steamboats instead followed a network of rivers—known as the Arkansas Post Canal—which flowed north of the lower Arkansas River and followed a shorter and more direct route to the Mississippi River. Very scenic with great old trees providing shade for much of the way. Originating in the Boston Mountains of northwest Arkansas, it arcs northwards through southern Missouri before turning back into Arkansas, flowing southeast to its mouth at the Mississippi River. Dan Elliott/AP The Arkansas River flows under a bridge in Salida, Colo., with the snow-covered Sawatch Range mountains in the background, April 25, 2018.. U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, Little Rock District/ Mission/Navigation. The entire river is nearly 150 miles long, so there's plenty of options for multi-day float trips. The Arkansas River originates high in the Sawatch Range of the Rocky Mountains near Leadville, Colorado, and it ends in eastern Arkansas at the confluence with the Mississippi River where the town of Napoleon (Desha County) once stood. The Arkansas River meanders 1,469 miles eastward through Colorado, Kansas, Oklahoma and Arkansas before joining the Mississippi River near Napoleon, Ark. The Arkansas generally flows to the east and southeast and traverses the United States states of Colorado, Kansas, Oklahoma, and Arkansas. Important cities along the Arkansas River include Canon City; Pueblo; La Junta; and Lamar, Colorado; Garden City: Dodge City; and Wichita, Kansas; Tulsa, Oklahoma; and Fort Smith; and Little Rock, Arkansas.  Today, brown trout dominate the river, which also contains rainbow trout. The corridor alternates between pastureland and dense forests of birch, hickory, oak, sweet gum and elm. During the American Civil War, each side tried to prevent the other from using the Arkansas River and its tributaries as a route for moving reinforcements. It stretches some 50 miles through the Arkansas River Valley and has more than 34,000 acres of boating and fishing waters. This circuitous portion of the Arkansas River between the Wilbur D. Mills Dam and the Mississippi River was historically bypassed by river vessels. Finally into the Mississippi Americans carrying European trinkets, and the White River in the 1540s, Hernando de discovered... 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